Monday, December 2, 2019

The Credit Card Fraud Cases in the Hospitality Industry

Background Today, technology has made our lives easier and better. Suppose you want to go and grab some snack or shop for some goods at the local store, you don’t have to carry cash with you. There is always a tiny and convenient credit card in your pocket that can buy you anything you want.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on The Credit Card Fraud Cases in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More And everyday technology is getting more advanced and things are becoming better and easier. And with new technologies being introduced, there is a higher potential of new fraud activities. Today, we will discuss credit card frauds in restaurants. Credit cards were initially a bipartite agreement – between the shopkeeper and the customer. But now the rules have changed and the credit card issuers act as middlemen (Economy Watch, 2010). Everyone, who ever had a credit card, is aware of that feeling of fear when he/she looks in his/her wallet and thinks that he/she has lost his/her credit card. And that fear is reasonable. If one finds/steals your credit card, he can easily buy goods from a local gas station or Wal-Mart. Things get worse if the thief possesses some personal information about the credit card owner. One can easily do online shopping without getting caught. But those are obvious fears. A lot of people don’t realize that the threat of their credit card being stolen is even bigger than they can consider at the first sight. Just imagine yourself sitting in a restaurant. You and your love ones are enjoying the nice and warm environment, eating good food and just having a good time. And once you are done, the waiter brings the check to you. You give him your credit card. He returns with a receipt and you leave the restaurant. You are happy and looks like everything is all right, but you don’t realize that when the waiter took your credit card to charge you, he might have copied all your credit card information and this is when the credit card fraud begins.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of the waiters are smart enough not to use your credit card. They simply transfer all information to their friends or partners, who utilize the money by doing online purchases etc. This is one of the most popular frauds in the hospitality industry and it happens everywhere including high-end luxury restaurants. Let’s analyze one of the most famous credit card frauds that happened in New York City in 2008-2009. Many waiters were arrested for stealing 3 million dollars in credit card fraud. People who were coming to 40 different restaurants in New York and many other states did not know that their credit card information was stolen when they were paying for their dinner. Waiters in many restaurants recorded customerâ €™s credit card info and were giving it to the third person/organization that paid them for such information. Unauthorized purchases worth more than 3,000,000 dollars were made, according to the prosecutors. Thirteen people were accused of unauthorized purchases on other people’s cards. People, whose credit cards info was stolen, were dining in Manhattan, other parts of NY, Florida, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Connecticut, and many other places. It was proved that leaders of the conspiracy formed an organization that managed people who applied for jobs in restaurants and were hired as waiters. These people were given hand-held â€Å"skimmers† that could read and save information available on the magnetic strips of credit cards. Some of these leaders worked in the same restaurants. They collected the devices afterwards and paid the waiters for stolen info from each card. The fee was $35-$50 per card.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on The Cre dit Card Fraud Cases in the Hospitality Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This fraudulent activity continued from November 2005 to 2009. The suspects used the stolen information for making fake credit cards and paying with them (CBS News, 2009). There are thousands of credit card frauds happening every year. And this number is rising every day. The government is not capable of defending each individual credit card holder. The government officials start pursuing a case when they see some big money thefts. Most of the thieves are humble enough to keep cash flow low so they wouldn’t be red flagged. I have personally experienced such a fraud. Few months ago I went to a restaurant in Sunny Isles, Florida. All the locals know that the waiters serving in restaurants in this area are immigrants from post Soviet Union country. They came here as exchange students and are willing to work during summer time to make some fast money and leave the country. They don’t care about what happens after they leave. I believe these are some of the reasons why my credit card information was stolen. So in a couple of days, after visiting that restaurant and paying for my meal with a credit card, I noticed some suspicious activity in my credit card account. I saw a few unauthorized purchases in New York and Chicago areas. This is when I made a call to my credit card company. Of course, in couple of weeks they returned my money but I believe nobody was arrested for stealing my information. They didn’t even ask me where I was shopping or eating. Nobody is interested. Credit card fraud statistics, published in a respected industry newsletter, place U.S. payment card fraud losses for 2010 at $3.56 billion, or almost half of the total global fraud losses reported (Merchant Express, 2012).Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Analysis of the dilemma Credit card scam is categorically one of the major menaces having negative impacts on businesses throughout the world. The hospitality industry is no exception and the managements of such organizations are stepping up their efforts in combating this threat and trying to safeguard their customers from being targets of the credit card fraudsters. If the organizations are not alert and pay less importance to the credit card frauds, their reputation might be at stake besides costing them huge amounts of money (Westpac, n.d., p. 3). Before analyzing the dilemma, let us first understand the meaning of a credit card fraud. When a person utilizes another person’s credit card for his/her personal use and the actual owner of the credit card is not aware of such transactions, it may be accounted as being a credit card fraud. Besides, the person who is utilizing the credit card is not connected to the owner in any manner and has no plans to contact him/her (the ow ner of the credit card). In such instances, the user doesn’t even have any intention of repaying the amount spent (Bhatla, Prabhu Dua, 2003, p. 1). Basically, there are four kinds of credit card frauds namely, bankruptcy fraud, theft or counterfeit fraud, application fraud, and behavioral fraud (Delamaire, Abdou Pointon, 2009, p. 59). During the years, the credit card issuing authorities have taken effective measures to counter the credit card frauds. Simultaneously, the bigger business houses have introduced new means to save their customers’ details from being hacked by the credit card fraudsters. But there are many small business people in the hospitality industry who don’t have any counter methods in place. Data Security Standard (DSS), put into practice by the ‘Security Standards Council’ (SSC) lays stress on the protection of customers’ interests (Protecting the credit privacy of your clients, n.d., p. 2). On the other hand, the credi t card issuing authorities have ensured that all the guidelines laid down by the ‘SSC’ are followed accordingly. But unfortunately, there are many small business owners who are unaware of any such guidelines (The Data Dilemma, para. 1). The owners of businesses alone cannot avert the credit card frauds. It needs a combined effort from the accounts department, the information technology department and the operations department to ensure that there are no credit card frauds in their organization (Trieber, n.d., p. 6). An even bigger concern for the hospitality industry is the use of credit cards by unauthorized guests for adjusting their hotel charges (Goldman, n.d., para. 1). This has proved to be an even bigger problem that is posing a great warning to the hospitality industry. It is estimated that out of the total credit card frauds, those in the hospitality industry account for 55% frauds and among the hospitality industry credit card frauds, 85% happen in small busin ess establishments (Haley Connolly, 2008, para. 3). So it is the smaller organizations that are the most affected and as such, efforts should be made towards educating them. Customers are very important in any kind of business. People in the hospitality industry are in a fix. They don’t know what to do in cases where some of the customers themselves are fraudsters. How can they differentiate between a genuine customer and a fraudster? Well, there are certain measures that, if taken, may avert maximum frauds. Any businessman will be happy when a customer buys a lot of things from his shop. But he should not be carried away by the huge amount of sales. There are chances that such big customers are taking undue advantage of some other’s credit card. Such customers buy huge quantities of supplies and don’t even bargain the prices. Business owners should train their staff to believe their gut feeling and report any such ambiguous person immediately (Nab, n.d., para. 6). Another dilemma for the hospitality industry owners is to believe or not to believe their staff members. There have been instances where billing clerks or other staff members have passed on the credit card information of customers to hackers in return of benefits (Federal Trade Commission, 2012, para. 2). The privacy of customers is yet another issue that the owners of the hospitality business have to tackle with. The reputation of the industry depends a lot on the level of privacy that is offered to the guests (Haley, 2005). Some of the banks have taken steps to counter the menace of credit card frauds. One of the immediate steps that they have taken is to ensure a call to customers if there is any ambiguous purchase (Parmar, n.d., p. 1). References Bhatla, P. Prabhu, V. Dua, A. (2003). Understanding credit card frauds. Retrieved from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/credit_card_fraud/PDFs/Bhatla.pdf CBS News. (2009). Waiters arrested in $3M credit card fraud. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-201_162-2713680.html Delamaire, L. Abdou, H. Pointon, J. (2009). Credit card fraud and detection techniques: A review. Banks and Bank Systems, 4(2), 57-68. Economy Watch. (2010). Credit card fraud. Retrieved from http://www.economywatch.com/credit-card/fraud.html Federal Trade Commission. (2012). Protecting against credit card fraud. Retrieved from http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0216-protecting-against-credit-card-fraud Goldman, P. (n.d.). Credit card fraud: The threat to hotels and restaurants everywhere. Retrieved from http://hotelexecutive.com/business_review/172/credit-card-fraud-the-threat-to-hotels-and-restaurants-everywhere Haley, M. (2005). The privacy dilemma. Retrieved from http://www.hospitalityupgrade.com/_files/File_Articles/HUSum05_APrivacyPrimer_Haley.pdf Haley, M. Connolly, D. (2008). The payment card industry compliance process for lodging establishments. Retrieved from http://www.ahla.com/uploadedFiles/AHLA/Members_Only/Property _and_Corporate/Property_-_Publications/PCI%20Compliance%20Technology%20Primer.pdf Merchant Express. (2012). U. S. Credit card fraud stats lead world. Retrieved from http://www.merchantexpress.com/blog/u-s-credit-card-fraud-stats-lead-world# Nab. (n.d.). Credit card fraud protection: How to protect your business and your customers. Retrieved from http://www.nab.com.au/wps/wcm/connect/377557804b9d6b779fcfdff1eeeae8e9/Credit_Crad_Fraud_Brochure.pdf?MOD=AJPERESCACHEID=377557804b9d6b779fcfdff1eeeae8e9 Parmar, B. (2013). Banks take steps to make credit card payments more safe. Retrieved from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/banking/banks-take-steps-to-make-credit-card-payments-more-safe/article4466130.ece Protecting the credit privacy of your clients. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.calodging.com/images/uploads/pdfs/Privacy_Protection_Wiggins.pdf The Data Dilemma. (2013). Retrieved from http://www2.qsrmagazine.com/articles/tools/114/creditcard-1.phtml Trieber, J. (n.d.). Where the rumors and myths end, and the facts begin. Retrieved from http://www.hftp.org/Content/PCI/HFTPPCISeries.pdf Westpac. (n.d.). Merchant business solutions. Retrieved from http://www.westpac.com.au/docs/pdf/bb/Merchant_Fraud_Brochure_V2_1.pdf This case study on The Credit Card Fraud Cases in the Hospitality Industry was written and submitted by user Elisabeth Bruce to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Canadas forestry fishing and farming industries essays

Canadas forestry fishing and farming industries essays Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia, and relies heavily on the main three primary resources. The fishing industry is one of the primary industries in Canada, which is concentrated on both the East and West Coast of Canada. The farming industry is also a primary industry, which is concentrated primarily in the Prairie Provinces. Lastly, forestry is a major industry in provinces like New Brunswick. In order for Canada to have a strong economic future in these three primary resources, conservation of the resources must take place. The fishing industry is one of the primary industries in Canada, which is concentrated on the East and the West Coast of Canada. Fishing is a major economic industry for the Atlantic and Pacific provinces of Canada. Unfortunately there is a depletion of codfish on the East Coast of Canada and there is a depletion of salmon on the West Coast of Canada. There are various solutions that can take place to conserve the fish. In order for Canada to prosper economically conservation of the fishes must take place. Fishing is a major economic industry for the Atlantic and Pacific provinces of Canada. The main reason why fishing is a major industry is because of the plankton thrive that exists in both the East and West Coast. In 1996 the landed value of the fish harvest was $240 million and provided jobs for over 13, 000 harvesting workers and 10, 000 fish processing workers in Newfoundland (www.greenpeace.org). On the West Coast the total landed value of commercially caught salmon was between 1991 and 1994 which averaged over $200 million annually, accounting for around half of the landed value of the entire commercial fleet in British Columbia (www.bcsalmon.ca). The fish-processing sector employs over 8,000 individuals during peak periods and generates a wholesale value for salmon roughly double the landed value (www.bcsalmon.ca). Many small isolated communities depend upon the fishe...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Universal Human Rights essays

Universal Human Rights essays When there is a cycle of violence going on, it is hard for a person leave because everyone becomes accustom to a certain way of living. This is because human beings are creatures of habit and are scared of change because it is a part of the unknown. However, there has to be a point people has to face the reality that the unhealthy environment cannot continue. Human rights are rights that all human beings are entitled to, merely by virtue of being human. Such human rights do not have to be earned, nor are they dependent on any particular social status. Human rights include both civil/political and economic/social/cultural rights; they also now include "third generation" rights such as the right to self-determination and development (Universal Human Rights). From there, Christians have taken a political stand for the gross human rights abuse for women and children who have been abused. Christians fight for the gross human rights because women and children are being abused or killed daily. They believe Islamic countries and well as others can follow human rights so that people are treated fairly and can be safe. The government of Sudan remained a gross human rights abuser, while rebel groups committed their share of violations. In the seemingly endless seventeen-year civil war, the government stepped up its brutal expulsions of southern villagers from the oil production areas and trumpeted its resolve to use the oil income for more weapons. Under the leadership of President (Lt. Gen.) Omar El Bashir, the government intensified its bombing of civilian targets in the war, denied relief food to needy civilians, and abused children's rights, particularly through its military and logistical support for the Ugandan rebel Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), which held an estimated 6,000 Ugandan children captive on government-controlled Sudanese territory. As for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Creating Added Value for the Customer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Creating Added Value for the Customer - Essay Example However the industry was at its nascent stage until the 1980s. Currently the video game console market is dominated by 3 main players – Sony, Nintendo and Microsoft. According to recent data, the gaming market peaked in the year 2008 with a net sales of $21.23 billion (hardware sales $7.81 billion and software sales $10.96 billion). The market is mainly dominated by software sales which comprises of 62% of the total expenditure. 1.2 Your Brand Info/Data Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA) was founded in the year 1994 as a division of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. PlayStation was launched by the in USA in 1995. It was a huge success with more than a million sales volumes in just 6 months. In November 2000, PlayStation 2 was introduced. And in August 2002, the company launched new network adapter that allowed online gaming. Next the company launched PlayStation Portable (PSP) 1.3 The Consumer/Customer, structures, guide, intro The target customers are hardcore and casu al gamers around the globe. Also the latest model targets movie buffs and PSP particularly targets teenagers. PlayStation has been upgraded from 1 to 3 and skimming price has been practised, thus targeting early adopters. PlayStation 2 is the part of Sony PlayStation series and is a sixth generation video game console launched in the year 2000. By 2011 the sales volume crossed 150 million mark. The software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM, supports online multiplayer gaming with a Linux based operating system. 1.4 Competition Data/Info Sony PlayStation has two direct competitors- Nintendo and Microsoft. Nintendo is in the gaming console business for last 20 years and Microsoft for last 10 years. Till 2010, the lifetime... The paper presents the video game console as part of the video game industry, which is again part of the consumer electronics industry. The video game console industry was born in 1972 with Odyssey produced by Magnavox. However the industry was at its nascent stage until the 1980s. Currently the video game console market is dominated by 3 main players – Sony, Nintendo and Microsoft. According to recent data, the gaming market peaked in the year 2008 with a net sales of $21.23 billion (hardware sales $7.81 billion and software sales $10.96 billion). The market is mainly dominated by software sales which comprises of 62% of the total expenditure. The target customers are hardcore and casual gamers around the globe. Also the latest model targets movie buffs and PSP particularly targets teenagers. PlayStation has been upgraded from 1 to 3 and skimming price has been practised, thus targeting early adopters. PlayStation 2 is the part of Sony PlayStation series and is a sixth genera tion video game console launched in the year 2000. By 2011 the sales volume crossed 150 million mark. The software is distributed on CD-ROM and DVD-ROM, supports online multiplayer gaming with a Linux based operating system. Sony’s â€Å"It only does everything† tag line in the PlayStation ads was a hit with its teen customer base. A study has found that teens on an average utilise only 49% of their time playing games in PS3, whereas it is 62% and 69% for Xbox 360 and Wii.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Introduction to e-commerce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Introduction to e-commerce - Essay Example In addition, it exceeded the expectations of today’s technology, and enabled the communication industry to integrate their functionality. However, in today’s highly modernized communication world, WAP has some limitations to its functionality. Visible limitations include 1) the pace by which the wireless application protocol is transferred from wireless networks to handheld devices 2) Undeniably, high updating cost of WAP device and WAP content 3) inability of handheld devices using the application to transfer large and bulk amount of data 4) high monetary value of application (Landers, 2002). Moreover, specific engineering of WAP supports only handheld devices in a modern wireless environment. Its limitations make it unreliable to optimize WAP features and the benefits of the application. â€Å"Low bandwidth, high network latency, slow data processing, limited memory, and different obstacles make the application process slow in wireless devices† (Landers, 2002). By pooling abovementioned limitations, one could easily understand that WAP is not user friendly for hand held devices. Therefore, it is necessary to design a substitute suite of technologies that will provide functionality comparable to standard technologies. In addition, the potential of WAP to revolutionize the practice awaits exploration until or unless the technology associated with the WAP receives alteration (Stallings,

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Evaluating Compliance Strategies Essay Example for Free

Evaluating Compliance Strategies Essay The compliance process is very important in medical billing and coding. After a patient is seen, physicians document the patients visit. Medical administrators then post the medical codes of the visit in the practice management program (PMP) and prepare the claim. It is important to prepare claims correctly in order to stay in compliance. A correct claim connects a billed service to a diagnosis. The diagnosis has to relate to the billed service to treat the patients ailment. The connection is referred to as code linkage. It is important to correctly link procedures and diagnosis because if they arent correctly link the payer will reject the claim and will not pay for the services which then makes the patient responsible for payment. To be in compliance, medical insurance specialists need to know each payers billing rules stated in each insurance policy. These are subject to change and updated frequently so medical insurance specialists also use payer bulletins, websites, and maintain communication with payer representatives to make sure they are staying in compliance. Medicare also has its own set of rules and regulations. The Medicare National correct coding initiative (CCI) controls improper coding. CCI edits are used by computers to check claims for errors that would lead to improper payment of services. The CCI prevents two procedures from being billed that could not have been performed together. Private payers also have code edits similar to the CCI. Compliance errors sometimes occur. Submitting an improper claim may just be a simple mistake such as a typo, or sometimes it may be a deliberate act of fraud. Other common errors that are sometimes made are truncated coding, incorrect gender or age of the patient, assumption coding, altering documentation, coding without proper documentation, reporting services provided by unlicensed providers, and coding a unilateral service twice instead of choosing the bilateral code. For these reasons there are several billing and coding compliance strategies that have been put in place. One compliance strategy used by healthcare professionals is to carefully define bundled code and know global periods. A medical insurance specialist needs to be clear on what individual procedures are contained in bundled codes and what the global periods are for surgical procedures. Another strategy is to benchmark the practices E/M codes with national average. By comparing the practice reports with national averages, upcoding is able to be monitored. Another strategy is to use modifiers appropriately, and be clear on professional courtesy and discounts to uninsured and low income patients. The strategy that I find the most useful and am in support of is to maintain compliant job reference aids and documentation templates. Job reference aids are a form of a cheat sheet that lists procedures and CPT codes that are most often used by each individual practice. I think that the only way this strategy can be improved is to make sure that the job reference aids are updated frequently when new services are added to the practice, and when codes change or new ones are added. This can be accomplished by keeping track of when codes are updated or changed. There are many implications of incorrect medical coding. An improper claim will get rejected or denied by the payer. When this happens the physician will need to either file an appeal, or correct the issue. If the error can be corrected the claim can be resubmitted, however this is still unfortunate because the process will take longer than if it had been done right in the first place. When coding errors are made due to fraudulent attempts, the person who prepared the claim will lose their job and face legal action. Also, sometimes the physician in charge of the practice will be liable and possibly sued, because he/she is responsible for their employees and their actions. Medical coding, physician, and payer fees are all related to the compliance process. Any services performed by a physician will need to be correctly coded so that they can be paid for. Medical coding must be done properly in order to stay in compliance. Physicians must be honest and provide proper documentation of any and all services performed in order for an insurance company to accept a claim and pay for the services that were performed. As long as everyone works as a team, and works in honesty, it is easy to stay in compliance. And by using the strategies I have outlined, compliance is not difficult to follow.

Friday, November 15, 2019

China Essay -- Chinese Economy Market Essays

China   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The history of China is embeded with revolution and tension dating back to the feudal periods and the " first unified Chinese empire under Qi Shi Huang Di in 221 B.C. " The Confucianism ideology entrenched in the minds of the Chinese people with its conservative base and the need to achieve harmony in society has yet to be reached and most likely, never will. The proletariat is at the heart of the Marxist-Maoist approach to politics and the basic way of life for the Chinese masses considering that "...roughly 85% of the population is based in peasantry..." While Marxism, as implemented by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Nationalism have historically hindered the people of China; a growing need to conform to capitilism is plainly obvious if there will ever be success in the global market.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Marxist theory is based on a classless society where the proletariat or working class is given the opportunity to exist on an equal social level with the remainder of the people while given a form of leadership of its own for the first time. The dictatorship of the proletariat in communist China called the " peoples democratic dictatorship " is considered by the Chinese Communist Party to be truly democratic, since it is the dictatorship of the vast majority, the ‘ people' over a tiny minority of reactionaries. The Chinese Communist Party formed in 1921 is founded upon strict Marxist beliefs that coincide with ideas expressed in the Communist Manifesto.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  " The CCP has, as it's mission the creation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  of a stateless classless society. Because the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  dictatorship of the proletariat must be led by the party of the proletariat, the CCP by virtue   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  of being the vanguard of the working class, and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  because of its knowledge of Marxism-Leninism   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  and its organizatioal capacities, is best able to understand and realize the interests of all people." The Communist Manifesto described the " conquest of political power by the proletariat " as the objective of the Communist. " The fundamentals of the CCP were originally based on extreme ‘leftist' views that centered around the proletariat. The party would virtually work for the victory of socialism in China while at the same time, looking to dismiss capitalism.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mao Zedong, one of the fou... ...ve all presently or over time worked against China flourishing into the new world of capitalism and free enterprise. In order for China to succeed and reach the ‘harmony' its Confucian ideology promises, Marxism, nationalism and sinocentrism must all be abandoned in the attempt to reach a democratic, capitalist lifestyle and business practice. Works Cited: Hay, Morris, Lin, and Yao. Economic Reform and State owned Enterprises in China ,1979-87 Clarenden Press: Oxford. 1994 Infeld, Al. China as a Model of Development Orbis Books: New York. 1976 Kraus, Willy. Economic Development and Social Change in the Peoples Republic of China Springer-Verlag: New York, Heidelberg and Berlin. 1990 Leonhard, Wolfgang. The Three Faces of Marxixm Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York, Chicago and San Fransisco. 1974 Ogden, Dr. Suzanne. China (Sixth ed.) Dushkin Publishing Group/Brown and Benchmark Publishers: Connecticut. 1995 Waller, Derek J. The Government and Politics of Communist China Anchor Books: Garden City, New York. 1991 World Press Review - Understanding China March, 1996. M. Zuckerman. U.S. News and World Report - China's New Reality. March 15, 1995.